Cities With the Best & Worst Weather

by Richie Bernardo

WH-2014-Cities-with-the-Best-and-Worst-WeatherMost of us don’t consider the weather beyond how it dictates the clothes we put on our backs. But weather can affect more than just our outfits. It impacts our daily lives — and wallets — in often under-considered ways, ranging from total monthly energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance premiums. Even further, it can also affect our moods, productivity and earning potential.

In the United States, routine weather events such as rain and colder-than-average temperatures can cost the economy as much as $485 billion annually. An inch of snow in Washington, DC, for instance, will force the federal government to shut down all nonessential operations. And those effects are just from small weather changes.

To gauge the economic impact of severe weather, let’s examine how Hurricane Sandy reshaped employment in New Jersey: In the fourth quarter of 2012, the storm contributed to a 7.3 percent reduction in total jobs. That November, 138,000 people filed for unemployment, a remarkable increase from only 54,000 in November 2011.

With hurricane season upon us and as many Americans relocate in search of new opportunities, WalletHub ranked 600 of the largest cities in the United States based on two sets of weather conditions: one for lovers of mild weather year-round and another for lovers of individual seasons. We used nine key metrics such as humidity, precipitation and snowfall as well as odds of poor and extreme weather. In doing so, consumers can forecast the potential effects their location could have on their wallets and adequately weatherproof their finances against the elements. Check out the Methodology section below for more detailed information on how we ranked each city.

Main Findings

Given the fact that we evaluated 600 cities, some of which are geographically close to one another, we assigned each city a percentile rank. For instance, a value of 10 means that city belongs to the top 10 percent of cities in a particular category (e.g., Winter Percentile).

Rankings Based on Mild Weather Conditions Year-Round

 

Rankings Based on Ideal Conditions for Individual Seasons

 

Mild Weather Overall % City
1 Arden-Arcade, CA
1 Citrus Heights, CA
1 Roseville, CA
1 Davis, CA
1 Glendale, CA
1 Pasadena, CA
1 Burbank, CA
2 Menifee, CA
2 Riverside, CA
2 Jurupa Valley, CA
2 Bakersfield, CA
2 Hesperia, CA
3 Apple Valley, CA
3 Victorville, CA
3 Scottsdale, AZ
3 Henderson, NV
3 Indio, CA
3 Hemet, CA
4 Las Cruces, NM
4 North Las Vegas, NV
4 Modesto, CA
4 Turlock, CA
4 Corona, CA
4 Anaheim, CA
4 Garden Grove, CA
4 Fullerton, CA
4 Norwalk, CA
4 Buena Park, CA
5 Saint George, UT
5 Lancaster, CA
5 Palmdale, CA
6 Los Angeles, CA
6 East Los Angeles, CA
6 South Gate, CA
6 San Tan Valley, AZ
6 Rio Rancho, NM
7 Murrieta, CA
7 Thornton, CO
7 Merced, CA
7 Pomona, CA
7 Sunnyvale, CA
7 Mountain View, CA
8 San Bernardino, CA
8 Redlands, CA
8 Rialto, CA
8 Lynwood, CA
8 Inglewood, CA
8 Compton, CA
8 Hawthorne, CA
9 Pleasanton, CA
9 Livermore, CA
9 Chino, CA
9 Chino Hills, CA
9 San Ramon, CA
10 El Cajon, CA
10 Vacaville, CA
10 Visalia, CA
10 Folsom, CA
10 Elk Grove, CA
10 Rancho Cordova, CA
11 Sacramento, CA
11 Roswell, NM
11 Stockton, CA
11 Tracy, CA
11 Manteca, CA
11 Yuma, AZ
12 Boca Raton, FL
12 Boynton Beach, FL
12 Surprise, AZ
12 Glendale, AZ
12 Peoria, AZ
12 Longmont, CO
13 Midland, TX
13 Santa Monica, CA
13 Brandon, FL
13 Moreno Valley, CA
13 Perris, CA
13 Temecula, CA
14 El Monte, CA
14 West Covina, CA
14 Whittier, CA
14 Alhambra, CA
14 Baldwin Park, CA
14 Concord, CA
14 Antioch, CA
15 Fort Collins, CO
15 Greeley, CO
15 Loveland, CO
15 Long Beach, CA
15 Downey, CA
16 Carson, CA
16 Lakewood, CA
16 Bellflower, CA
16 Nampa, ID
16 Meridian, ID
16 Fishers, IN
17 Columbia, MD
17 Tampa, FL
17 Riverview, FL
17 Santa Fe, NM
17 Concord, NC
17 Escondido, CA
18 Chandler, AZ
18 Gilbert, AZ
18 Tucson, AZ
18 Phoenix, AZ
18 Tempe, AZ
18 Boulder, CO
18 Casas Adobes, AZ
19 Avondale, AZ
19 Goodyear, AZ
19 Palm Coast, FL
19 Pueblo, CO
19 Odessa, TX
20 Suffolk, VA
20 Thousand Oaks, CA
20 Torrance, CA
20 Redondo Beach, CA
20 Fontana, CA
20 Grand Prairie, TX
20 Rancho Cucamonga, CA
20 Ontario, CA
20 Upland, CA
21 Las Vegas, NV
21 Sunrise Manor, NV
21 Spring Valley, NV
21 Enterprise, NV
22 Yakima, WA
22 Oxnard, CA
22 Ventura, CA
22 Fresno, CA
22 Clovis, CA
23 Redding, CA
23 Johns Creek, GA
23 Mesa, AZ
23 Bend, OR
23 Santa Ana, CA
23 Irvine, CA
23 Orange, CA
23 Costa Mesa, CA
24 Mission Viejo, CA
24 Newport Beach, CA
24 Lake Forest, CA
24 Tustin, CA
25 Paradise, NV
25 Wichita Falls, TX
25 Provo, UT
25 Orem, UT
25 Santa Barbara, CA
25 Chico, CA
26 Huntington Beach, CA
26 Westminster, CA
26 Kennewick, WA
26 Redwood City, CA
26 Mesquite, TX
26 San Jose, CA
26 Santa Clara, CA
27 Milpitas, CA
27 Charleston, SC
27 Beaumont, TX
27 Silver Spring, MD
27 Fremont, CA
28 Carlsbad, CA
28 Vista, CA
28 San Angelo, TX
28 San Marcos, CA
28 Union City, CA
28 Hayward, CA
29 El Paso, TX
29 Mount Pleasant, SC
29 Fairfield, CA
29 West Valley, UT
29 West Jordan, UT
29 Sandy, UT
30 Columbia, SC
30 Huntsville, AL
30 Boise, ID
30 Oceanside, CA
30 Lake Charles, LA
30 Flagstaff, AZ
31 Lehigh Acres, FL
31 Cape Coral, FL
31 Portsmouth, VA
31 Kearney, NE
31 Gastonia, NC
31 Ogden, UT
32 Spring Hill, FL
32 Norman, OK
32 Reno, NV
32 Sparks, NV
32 Abilene, TX
32 Orlando, FL
32 Alafaya, FL
33 Chula Vista, CA
33 Tulsa, OK
33 Broken Arrow, OK
33 Greenville, NC
33 Santa Rosa, CA
34 Deltona, FL
34 Germantown, MD
34 Denton, TX
34 Laredo, TX
34 Fort Worth, TX
34 Pembroke Pines, FL
34 Miramar, FL
34 Davie, FL
34 Weston, FL
35 Rock Hill, SC
35 Garland, TX
35 San Diego, CA
36 Santa Clarita, CA
36 Simi Valley, CA
36 Joliet, IL
36 Oklahoma City, OK
36 Edmond, OK
36 Jackson, MS
37 Edinburg, TX
37 McKinney, TX
37 Allen, TX
37 Casper, WY
37 Vallejo, CA
37 Napa, CA
38 Hoover, AL
38 Augusta, GA
38 Arlington, TX
38 Albuquerque, NM
38 Gainesville, FL
38 Hialeah, FL
38 Miami Gardens, FL
39 Medford, OR
39 Albany, GA
39 Winston-Salem, NC
39 Independence, MO
39 Salinas, CA
40 Lynchburg, VA
40 McAllen, TX
40 Saint Petersburg, FL
40 Mission, TX
40 Pharr, TX
40 Rock Springs, WY
41 Rochester, MI
41 Sterling Heights, MI
41 Troy, MI
41 Southfield, MI
41 Athens-Clarke, GA
41 Macon, GA
42 Shreveport, LA
42 Fort Smith, AR
42 Lakeland, FL
42 Columbus, GA
42 Clearwater, FL
42 Largo, FL
43 Atlanta, GA
43 Sandy Springs, GA
43 Tuscaloosa, AL
43 Amarillo, TX
43 Palm Bay, FL
43 Melbourne, FL
44 Temple, TX
44 Santa Maria, CA
44 Missouri City, TX
44 Overland Park, KS
44 Kansas City, KS
44 Colorado Springs, CO
45 Honolulu, HI
45 Pearl City, HI
45 East Honolulu, HI
45 Kansas City, MO
45 Topeka, KS
45 Plano, TX
45 Frisco, TX
45 Carrollton, TX
45 Richardson, TX
46 Fayetteville, AR
46 Rapid City, SD
46 Dothan, AL
47 Gillette, WY
47 Longview, TX
47 Pearland, TX
47 Schenectady, NY
47 Woonsocket, RI
47 Pawtucket, RI
47 Toms River, NJ
48 Brookings, SD
48 Fayetteville, NC
48 Gulfport, MS
48 Kendall, FL
48 Lawrence, KS
49 Sugar Land, TX
49 Lincoln, NE
49 Saint Charles, MO
49 Frederick, MD
49 Round Rock, TX
49 Tyler, TX
50 The Woodlands, TX
50 Bolingbrook, IL
50 Brownsville, TX
50 Waco, TX
50 Jackson, TN
50 Lafayette, LA
51 Wilmington, NC
51 Grand Island, NE
51 Killeen, TX
51 Trenton, NJ
51 Owensboro, KY
51 Hattiesburg, MS
52 Carmel, IN
52 Allentown, PA
52 Lees Summit, MO
52 Saint Joseph, MO
52 Jonesboro, AR
52 Pocatello, ID
53 Chesapeake, VA
53 Clarksville, TN
53 Bryan, TX
53 College Station, TX
53 Lubbock, TX
53 Lakewood, CO
53 Arvada, CO
53 Westminster, CO
54 Olathe, KS
54 Lewiston, ME
54 Auburn, ME
54 Great Falls, MT
55 Mobile, AL
55 Waukesha, WI
55 Springdale, AR
55 Coral Springs, FL
55 Sunrise, FL
55 Lauderhill, FL
56 Baytown, TX
56 Pasadena, TX
56 League City, TX
56 Paterson, NJ
56 Warner Robins, GA
56 Roanoke, VA
57 Newport News, VA
57 Evansville, IN
57 Laramie, WY
57 Sioux City, IA
57 O Fallon, MO
57 San Francisco, CA
57 San Mateo, CA
57 Daly City, CA
58 Rochester, MN
58 Lawton, OK
58 Spokane, WA
58 Spokane Valley, WA
59 Savannah, GA
59 Town 'n' Country, FL
59 Bowling Green, KY
59 Columbia, MO
59 Springfield, IL
59 North Charleston, SC
60 Bozeman, MT
60 Peoria, IL
60 Bismarck, ND
60 Toledo, OH
60 Iowa City, IA
60 San Leandro, CA
60 Alameda, CA
61 Cheyenne, WY
61 Oakland, CA
61 Berkeley, CA
61 Richmond, CA
61 Reading, PA
62 Lafayette, IN
62 Philadelphia, PA
62 Butte, MT
62 Palatine, IL
62 Nashua, NH
62 Arlington Heights, IL
62 Evanston, IL
63 Springfield, MO
63 Idaho Falls, ID
63 Newark, DE
63 Bear, DE
63 Middletown, DE
63 Wilmington, DE
64 Aberdeen, SD
64 New Orleans, LA
64 Metairie, LA
64 Montgomery, AL
64 Murfreesboro, TN
65 Baton Rouge, LA
65 Decatur, IL
65 Davenport, IA
65 Port Saint Lucie, FL
65 New York, NY
65 Jersey City, NJ
65 Union City, NJ
66 Hartford, CT
66 New Britain, CT
66 Huntington, WV
66 Vancouver, WA
66 Tallahassee, FL
67 Missoula, MT
67 High Point, NC
67 Passaic, NJ
67 Clifton, NJ
67 Greensboro, NC
67 Cincinnati, OH
67 Covington, KY
68 Duluth, MN
68 Bloomington, IN
68 Pompano Beach, FL
68 Deerfield Beach, FL
68 Parkersburg, WV
69 Birmingham, AL
69 Danbury, CT
69 Detroit, MI
69 Warren, MI
69 Dearborn, MI
69 Waterbury, CT
70 Cedar Rapids, IA
70 Lowell, MA
70 Lawrence, MA
70 Asheville, NC
70 New Haven, CT
70 Brockton, MA
70 Quincy, MA
71 Columbus, OH
71 Aurora, IL
71 Naperville, IL
71 Elgin, IL
71 Billings, MT
72 Rutland, VT
72 Lexington, KY
72 Norfolk, VA
72 Fort Lauderdale, FL
72 Hollywood, FL
72 Plantation, FL
73 Dale City, VA
73 Jacksonville, NC
73 Renton, WA
73 Champaign, IL
73 Dover, NH
73 Rochester, NH
74 Centennial, CO
74 Highlands Ranch, CO
74 Denver, CO
74 Manchester, NH
74 Salt Lake City, UT
74 Aurora, CO
75 Bridgeport, CT
75 Corpus Christi, TX
75 Racine, WI
75 Watertown, SD
75 Hillsboro, OR
75 Beaverton, OR
76 Jacksonville, FL
76 Kailua, HI
76 Bethlehem, PA
76 Hammond, IN
76 Gary, IN
76 Roswell, GA
77 Ann Arbor, MI
77 Chattanooga, TN
77 Muncie, IN
77 Layton, UT
77 Oshkosh, WI
77 Kenosha, WI
78 Waukegan, IL
78 Salem, OR
78 Minot, ND
78 Newton, MA
78 Biloxi, MS
78 Bloomington, IL
79 Framingham, MA
79 West Fargo, ND
79 Fargo, ND
79 Sioux Falls, SD
79 Saint Cloud, MN
79 Miami, FL
79 Miami Beach, FL
80 Appleton, WI
80 Akron, OH
80 Saint Paul, MN
80 Waterloo, IA
80 Seattle, WA
80 Bellevue, WA
81 Hilo, HI
81 Morgantown, WV
81 Charlotte, NC
81 Charleston, WV
81 West Palm Beach, FL
82 Dallas, TX
82 Bellevue, NE
82 Fairbanks, AK
82 Wheeling, WV
82 Green Bay, WI
82 Eau Claire, WI
83 Knoxville, TN
83 Madison, WI
83 Gresham, OR
83 San Antonio, TX
83 Omaha, NE
83 Irving, TX
83 Lewisville, TX
83 Flower Mound, TX
84 Minneapolis, MN
84 Portland, OR
84 Brooklyn Park, MN
84 Plymouth, MN
85 Scranton, PA
85 Hampton, VA
85 Raleigh, NC
85 Durham, NC
85 Cary, NC
85 Kalamazoo, MI
86 New Bedford, MA
86 Fall River, MA
86 South Bend, IN
86 Eugene, OR
86 Austin, TX
86 Anchorage, AK
87 Cleveland, OH
87 Concord, NH
87 Atascocita, TX
87 Pittsburgh, PA
87 Tacoma, WA
87 South Portland, ME
87 Portland, ME
88 Norwalk, CT
88 Stamford, CT
88 Little Rock, AR
88 Waldorf, MD
88 Kenner, LA
89 Dover, DE
89 Flint, MI
89 Wichita, KS
89 Houston, TX
89 Memphis, TN
89 Southaven, MS
90 Bellingham, WA
90 Nashville, TN
90 Springfield, MA
90 Everett, WA
90 Centreville, VA
90 Richmond, VA
91 Erie, PA
91 Albany, NY
91 Baltimore, MD
91 Ellicott City, MD
91 Glen Burnie, MD
91 Grand Forks, ND
92 Virginia Beach, VA
92 Louisville, KY
92 Chicago, IL
92 Cicero, IL
92 Farmington, MI
92 Auburn, WA
92 Kent, WA
92 Federal Way, WA
93 Washington, DC
93 Arlington, VA
93 Alexandria, VA
93 Saint Louis, MO
94 Westland, MI
94 Montpelier, VT
94 Barre, VT
94 Livonia, MI
94 Des Moines, IA
94 Dayton, OH
95 Worcester, MA
95 Camden, NJ
95 Bloomington, MN
95 Schaumburg, IL
95 Milwaukee, WI
95 Winooski, VT
95 Burlington, VT
96 Yonkers, NY
96 New Rochelle, NY
96 Mount Vernon, NY
96 Bangor, ME
96 Rockford, IL
97 Fort Wayne, IN
97 Lansing, MI
97 Newark, NJ
97 Elizabeth, NJ
97 Parma, OH
97 Grand Rapids, MI
98 Boston, MA
98 Cambridge, MA
98 Lynn, MA
98 Somerville, MA
98 Wyoming, MI
98 Indianapolis, IN
99 Providence, RI
99 Warwick, RI
99 Cranston, RI
99 Rochester, NY
99 Canton, OH
99 Buffalo, NY
99 Cheektowaga, NY
100 Syracuse, NY
100 Youngstown, OH
100 Ketchikan, AK
100 Sitka, AK
100 Juneau, AK
Four Seasons Overall % City Winter % Spring % Summer % Fall %
1 Glendale, CA 1 3 6 1
1 Pasadena, CA 1 3 6 1
1 Burbank, CA 1 3 6 1
1 Bakersfield, CA 13 2 1 3
1 Modesto, CA 6 6 1 3
1 Turlock, CA 6 6 1 3
2 Davis, CA 8 3 2 4
2 Merced, CA 9 7 1 4
2 Riverside, CA 4 4 4 3
2 Jurupa Valley, CA 4 4 4 3
2 Arden-Arcade, CA 10 1 5 4
2 Citrus Heights, CA 10 1 5 4
3 Roseville, CA 10 1 5 4
3 Saint George, UT 1 6 10 3
3 Menifee, CA 3 1 3 9
3 Las Cruces, NM 2 4 7 6
3 Hesperia, CA 8 2 2 8
3 Apple Valley, CA 8 2 2 8
3 Victorville, CA 8 2 2 8
4 Scottsdale, AZ 5 2 11 5
4 Henderson, NV 7 2 9 6
4 Stockton, CA 9 10 3 6
4 Visalia, CA 16 17 1 1
4 Tracy, CA 9 10 3 6
4 Manteca, CA 9 10 3 6
5 Lancaster, CA 1 9 5 9
5 Palmdale, CA 1 9 5 9
5 Sunnyvale, CA 2 6 19 2
5 Mountain View, CA 2 6 19 2
5 Corona, CA 6 3 18 2
6 Pleasanton, CA 4 10 14 1
6 Livermore, CA 4 10 14 1
6 San Ramon, CA 4 10 14 1
6 Sacramento, CA 17 9 6 2
6 Roswell, NM 3 13 9 5
6 Vacaville, CA 23 7 4 1
7 Hemet, CA 3 1 3 31
7 Indio, CA 12 4 9 15
7 North Las Vegas, NV 9 4 14 13
7 Anaheim, CA 6 7 16 10
7 Garden Grove, CA 6 7 16 10
7 Fullerton, CA 6 7 16 10
7 Norwalk, CA 6 7 16 10
7 Buena Park, CA 6 7 16 10
8 Suffolk, VA 3 21 13 4
8 Los Angeles, CA 11 4 19 7
8 East Los Angeles, CA 11 4 19 7
8 South Gate, CA 11 4 19 7
9 Concord, CA 16 13 17 5
9 Antioch, CA 16 13 17 5
9 Chino, CA 17 16 10 8
9 Chino Hills, CA 17 16 10 8
9 San Bernardino, CA 22 14 1 15
9 Redlands, CA 22 14 1 15
9 Rialto, CA 22 14 1 15
10 Rio Rancho, NM 17 10 13 13
10 Midland, TX 11 18 15 14
10 Moreno Valley, CA 18 19 9 12
10 Perris, CA 18 19 9 12
10 Temecula, CA 18 19 9 12
11 San Tan Valley, AZ 14 2 25 16
11 Murrieta, CA 3 1 15 42
11 Odessa, TX 13 20 20 13
11 Redding, CA 37 20 2 6
11 Lynwood, CA 4 8 32 17
11 Inglewood, CA 4 8 32 17
11 Compton, CA 4 8 32 17
11 Hawthorne, CA 4 8 32 17
12 Escondido, CA 7 33 19 7
12 Greeley, CO 17 21 20 9
12 Columbia, SC 12 21 28 7
12 Brandon, FL 34 16 15 5
13 Bend, OR 22 25 13 11
13 Mount Pleasant, SC 23 27 20 4
13 Thornton, CO 27 18 7 22
13 Folsom, CA 43 11 4 18
13 Elk Grove, CA 43 11 4 18
13 Rancho Cordova, CA 43 11 4 18
14 Tucson, AZ 7 5 54 7
14 Casas Adobes, AZ 7 5 55 7
14 Fort Collins, CO 14 27 23 10
14 Loveland, CO 14 27 23 10
14 Santa Monica, CA 3 11 44 18
14 Fresno, CA 30 21 6 19
14 Clovis, CA 30 21 6 19
15 Mesquite, TX 22 32 13 15
15 Concord, NC 14 14 16 40
15 Wichita Falls, TX 16 24 22 21
15 Longmont, CO 33 24 7 16
15 Gastonia, NC 12 30 26 16
16 Santa Fe, NM 27 20 24 12
16 San Angelo, TX 17 34 22 9
16 Charleston, SC 20 29 21 16
16 Pomona, CA 34 16 10 25
16 Tampa, FL 30 19 22 12
16 Riverview, FL 30 19 22 12
17 Denton, TX 5 42 25 9
17 Silver Spring, MD 21 28 19 20
17 Fontana, CA 25 29 8 24
17 Rancho Cucamonga, CA 25 29 8 24
17 Ontario, CA 25 29 8 24
17 Upland, CA 25 29 8 24
18 Grand Prairie, TX 23 23 18 23
18 Pueblo, CO 26 25 18 16
18 Long Beach, CA 15 17 29 28
18 Downey, CA 15 17 29 28
18 Carson, CA 15 17 29 28
18 Lakewood, CA 15 17 29 28
18 Bellflower, CA 15 17 29 28
19 Surprise, AZ 18 10 44 18
19 McKinney, TX 11 46 21 10
19 Allen, TX 11 46 21 10
19 Tulsa, OK 8 45 23 11
19 Broken Arrow, OK 8 45 23 11
20 Provo, UT 37 23 14 13
20 Orem, UT 37 23 14 13
20 Thousand Oaks, CA 5 15 52 21
20 Santa Barbara, CA 4 18 52 17
20 Greenville, NC 2 28 27 36
20 El Cajon, CA 37 15 17 27
20 Yuma, AZ 24 6 36 27
21 Norman, OK 20 38 22 16
21 Abilene, TX 16 38 27 13
21 Fort Worth, TX 11 42 29 13
21 Oxnard, CA 2 15 59 24
21 Ventura, CA 2 15 59 24
22 Rock Hill, SC 13 31 30 27
22 Nampa, ID 56 15 8 25
22 Meridian, ID 56 15 8 25
22 Hoover, AL 22 33 26 26
22 Boulder, CO 40 25 10 30
22 San Jose, CA 29 28 25 23
22 Santa Clara, CA 29 28 25 23
23 Augusta, GA 18 28 41 18
23 Milpitas, CA 29 28 25 23
23 Union City, CA 13 22 60 14
23 Hayward, CA 13 22 60 14
23 Yakima, WA 70 16 11 14
24 Johns Creek, GA 27 19 22 46
24 Fairfield, CA 43 25 23 19
24 Paradise, NV 38 35 13 22
24 Arlington, TX 13 46 26 26
24 Las Vegas, NV 23 13 42 33
24 Sunrise Manor, NV 23 13 42 33
24 Spring Valley, NV 23 13 42 33
24 Enterprise, NV 23 13 42 33
25 Spring Hill, FL 24 24 36 24
25 Kennewick, WA 53 14 14 36
25 Winston-Salem, NC 13 35 39 27
25 Fort Smith, AR 21 48 19 26
26 Jackson, MS 44 38 16 14
26 El Paso, TX 20 16 54 30
26 Glendale, AZ 36 5 41 32
26 Peoria, AZ 36 5 41 32
26 Flagstaff, AZ 21 33 50 16
26 Athens-Clarke, GA 24 33 33 30
27 Atlanta, GA 30 36 28 24
27 Sandy Springs, GA 30 36 28 24
27 Oklahoma City, OK 26 40 30 22
27 Edmond, OK 26 40 30 22
27 Orlando, FL 25 24 45 28
27 Alafaya, FL 25 24 45 28
28 Columbia, MD 39 21 15 53
28 Phoenix, AZ 28 8 59 31
28 Tempe, AZ 28 8 59 31
28 Boise, ID 63 27 9 28
28 Fishers, IN 65 17 13 34
28 Macon, GA 31 30 36 27
29 Garland, TX 23 49 16 38
29 Cape Coral, FL 27 23 47 30
29 Deltona, FL 28 25 41 32
29 Santa Ana, CA 19 25 40 44
29 Irvine, CA 19 25 40 44
29 Orange, CA 19 25 40 44
29 Costa Mesa, CA 19 25 40 44
30 Mission Viejo, CA 19 25 41 44
30 Newport Beach, CA 19 25 41 44
30 Lake Forest, CA 19 25 41 44
30 Tustin, CA 19 25 41 44
30 Germantown, MD 29 35 28 33
31 Albany, GA 26 31 56 18
31 Columbus, GA 34 32 43 19
31 Ogden, UT 63 34 11 21
31 Lynchburg, VA 14 38 47 33
31 Fayetteville, NC 8 35 56 34
31 Palm Coast, FL 45 23 11 56
32 Portsmouth, VA 21 36 44 31
32 Shreveport, LA 41 43 24 20
32 Fayetteville, AR 21 48 27 35
32 El Monte, CA 56 22 12 47
32 West Covina, CA 56 22 12 47
32 Whittier, CA 56 22 12 47
32 Alhambra, CA 56 22 12 47
32 Baldwin Park, CA 56 22 12 47
33 Independence, MO 32 44 34 20
33 Huntsville, AL 38 20 25 59
33 Chandler, AZ 40 7 46 47
33 Gilbert, AZ 40 7 46 47
34 Chico, CA 56 33 7 44
34 Kearney, NE 42 40 34 19
34 Tuscaloosa, AL 44 35 27 30
34 Santa Rosa, CA 49 31 35 23
34 Medford, OR 49 45 14 29
34 Gainesville, FL 31 29 44 37
35 Carlsbad, CA 10 34 62 41
35 Vista, CA 10 34 62 41
35 San Marcos, CA 10 34 62 41
35 West Valley, UT 76 12 5 59
35 West Jordan, UT 76 12 5 59
35 Lehigh Acres, FL 40 24 48 34
35 Sandy, UT 76 12 5 59
36 Oceanside, CA 12 33 64 47
36 Longview, TX 40 53 27 22
36 Boca Raton, FL 61 20 11 63
36 Kansas City, MO 32 44 47 20
36 Dothan, AL 41 36 53 15
36 Boynton Beach, FL 61 20 12 63
37 Wilmington, NC 20 37 49 47
37 Topeka, KS 28 54 34 26
37 Overland Park, KS 32 44 49 20
37 Kansas City, KS 32 44 49 20
37 Avondale, AZ 43 12 51 50
37 Goodyear, AZ 43 12 51 50
38 Vallejo, CA 34 34 60 21
38 Napa, CA 34 34 60 21
38 Reno, NV 53 42 18 38
38 Sparks, NV 53 42 18 38
38 Huntington Beach, CA 36 27 50 44
38 Westminster, CA 36 27 50 44
39 Saint Charles, MO 45 47 26 33
39 Waco, TX 20 63 35 37
39 Jonesboro, AR 49 50 24 30
39 Pembroke Pines, FL 31 37 37 51
39 Miramar, FL 31 37 37 51
39 Davie, FL 31 37 37 51
39 Weston, FL 31 37 37 51
40 Tyler, TX 37 59 31 27
40 Temple, TX 35 52 31 36
40 Trenton, NJ 27 49 45 37
40 Missouri City, TX 56 58 17 30
41 Gulfport, MS 53 45 36 21
41 Lawrence, KS 40 56 36 26
41 Mesa, AZ 50 12 53 55
41 Amarillo, TX 31 41 51 38
41 Torrance, CA 51 18 55 46
41 Redondo Beach, CA 51 18 55 46
42 Albuquerque, NM 26 28 62 58
42 Jackson, TN 54 49 24 36
42 Fremont, CA 63 32 33 40
42 Lake Charles, LA 70 38 15 44
42 Redwood City, CA 56 30 40 43
42 Palm Bay, FL 35 32 55 53
43 Melbourne, FL 35 32 55 53
43 Joliet, IL 62 40 28 36
43 Salinas, CA 14 36 78 49
43 Beaumont, TX 79 41 9 41
43 Sugar Land, TX 54 59 30 26
43 Chesapeake, VA 33 50 58 29
44 Santa Maria, CA 14 39 75 50
44 Olathe, KS 48 64 40 21
44 O Fallon, MO 42 66 37 32
44 Saint Petersburg, FL 30 32 72 49
44 Hattiesburg, MS 59 43 35 39
44 Hialeah, FL 38 41 44 60
44 Miami Gardens, FL 38 41 44 60
45 Roanoke, VA 26 47 65 42
45 Lees Summit, MO 48 59 35 36
45 Round Rock, TX 48 54 33 49
45 Warner Robins, GA 40 41 64 38
45 Newport News, VA 18 44 60 66
46 Toms River, NJ 29 46 57 54
46 Clearwater, FL 32 30 86 34
46 Largo, FL 32 30 86 34
46 Bryan, TX 45 67 31 42
46 Frederick, MD 41 40 37 68
46 Pearland, TX 64 57 23 41
47 College Station, TX 45 67 32 42
47 Clarksville, TN 65 47 24 50
47 Lincoln, NE 54 63 46 23
47 Owensboro, KY 66 48 31 38
47 The Woodlands, TX 48 65 27 52
47 Lubbock, TX 27 58 58 49
48 Killeen, TX 34 64 49 43
48 Carmel, IN 70 46 32 40
48 Columbia, MO 48 64 35 43
48 Allentown, PA 45 46 54 50
48 Santa Clarita, CA 64 31 25 80
48 Simi Valley, CA 64 31 25 80
49 Casper, WY 55 55 29 56
49 Lawton, OK 33 66 59 37
49 Saint Joseph, MO 58 62 43 31
49 Evansville, IN 71 53 28 46
49 Lafayette, LA 75 47 29 47
49 Chula Vista, CA 30 35 68 70
49 Springfield, MO 44 68 35 53
50 Edinburg, TX 80 52 33 28
50 Bowling Green, KY 65 54 31 50
50 Laredo, TX 66 41 45 51
50 North Charleston, SC 38 40 72 54
50 Mobile, AL 55 43 71 31
51 Bolingbrook, IL 68 53 39 41
51 McAllen, TX 75 50 39 34
51 San Diego, CA 36 36 65 71
51 Honolulu, HI 60 42 43 62
51 Pearl City, HI 60 42 43 62
51 East Honolulu, HI 60 42 43 62
52 Mission, TX 75 50 39 34
52 Pharr, TX 75 50 39 34
52 Springfield, IL 60 65 44 37
52 Savannah, GA 34 43 74 59
52 Philadelphia, PA 44 57 56 55
52 Montgomery, AL 45 51 64 49
52 Peoria, IL 67 68 39 31
53 Woonsocket, RI 39 45 67 59
53 Pawtucket, RI 39 45 67 59
53 High Point, NC 28 56 69 58
53 Greensboro, NC 28 56 69 58
53 Grand Island, NE 62 69 54 28
54 Paterson, NJ 43 56 58 63
54 Plano, TX 50 51 37 76
54 Frisco, TX 50 51 37 76
54 Carrollton, TX 50 51 37 76
54 Richardson, TX 50 51 37 76
54 Colorado Springs, CO 43 52 79 42
55 Birmingham, AL 58 60 56 47
55 Norfolk, VA 24 54 74 68
55 Lafayette, IN 68 62 50 40
55 Rapid City, SD 63 68 47 46
55 Decatur, IL 73 59 49 40
55 Rock Springs, WY 74 49 33 64
56 Murfreesboro, TN 53 57 45 71
56 Jacksonville, NC 29 58 74 62
56 Dale City, VA 37 61 64 64
56 Lewiston, ME 35 49 68 75
56 Auburn, ME 35 49 68 75
56 Toledo, OH 83 59 38 39
57 Roswell, GA 37 67 72 55
57 Newark, DE 47 55 60 68
57 Bear, DE 47 55 60 68
57 Middletown, DE 47 55 60 68
57 Wilmington, DE 47 55 60 68
57 Cincinnati, OH 69 61 47 54
57 Covington, KY 69 61 47 54
58 San Francisco, CA 54 52 76 43
58 San Mateo, CA 54 52 76 43
58 Daly City, CA 54 52 76 43
58 Huntington, WV 67 57 53 55
58 Gillette, WY 66 69 34 63
59 Parkersburg, WV 63 59 58 53
59 Vancouver, WA 67 63 49 56
59 Spokane, WA 72 69 33 60
59 Spokane Valley, WA 72 69 33 60
59 Brownsville, TX 87 73 30 37
59 Reading, PA 54 55 55 71
60 Rochester, MI 93 39 20 84
60 Sterling Heights, MI 93 39 20 84
60 Troy, MI 93 39 20 84
60 Southfield, MI 93 39 20 84
60 Hartford, CT 46 63 66 64
60 New Britain, CT 46 63 66 64
61 Kendall, FL 49 39 87 60
61 Passaic, NJ 52 61 63 65
61 Clifton, NJ 52 61 63 65
61 New York, NY 49 57 66 70
61 Jersey City, NJ 49 57 66 70
61 Union City, NJ 49 57 66 70
62 Palatine, IL 79 70 50 39
62 Arlington Heights, IL 79 70 51 39
62 Evanston, IL 79 70 51 39
62 Iowa City, IA 78 70 56 35
62 Pocatello, ID 96 58 24 64
62 Lakeland, FL 78 37 51 82
63 Lexington, KY 82 63 51 49
63 Brookings, SD 64 47 65 68
63 New Haven, CT 41 73 76 58
63 Tallahassee, FL 64 47 80 52
63 Waterbury, CT 36 64 79 68
63 San Leandro, CA 52 53 83 56
63 Alameda, CA 52 53 83 56
64 Oakland, CA 52 53 83 56
64 Berkeley, CA 52 53 83 56
64 Richmond, CA 52 53 83 56
64 Bloomington, IN 84 61 50 52
64 Sioux City, IA 77 67 64 39
65 Baton Rouge, LA 71 58 62 58
65 Columbus, OH 77 68 54 51
65 Asheville, NC 46 51 81 66
65 Lowell, MA 46 74 70 61
65 Lawrence, MA 46 74 70 61
65 Springdale, AR 69 50 43 89
66 Davenport, IA 80 72 63 34
66 Great Falls, MT 63 71 57 64
66 Champaign, IL 72 71 65 44
66 Chattanooga, TN 62 65 58 74
66 Detroit, MI 88 65 47 55
66 Warren, MI 88 65 47 55
66 Dearborn, MI 88 65 47 55
67 Charlotte, NC 49 72 76 61
67 Town 'n' Country, FL 51 44 100 61
67 Renton, WA 60 66 65 73
67 New Orleans, LA 66 66 57 79
67 Metairie, LA 66 66 57 79
68 Bridgeport, CT 55 76 71 63
68 Danbury, CT 48 67 72 81
68 Nashua, NH 58 65 75 69
68 Hillsboro, OR 74 74 52 67
68 Beaverton, OR 74 74 52 67
68 Coral Springs, FL 39 48 96 82
68 Sunrise, FL 39 48 96 82
68 Lauderhill, FL 39 48 96 82
69 Manchester, NH 59 74 69 67
69 Schenectady, NY 89 43 46 91
69 Dallas, TX 41 81 79 71
69 Salem, OR 80 74 54 62
70 Aurora, IL 88 72 60 52
70 Naperville, IL 88 72 60 52
70 Elgin, IL 88 72 60 52
70 Hampton, VA 40 73 82 79
70 Dover, NH 51 77 77 72
70 Rochester, NH 51 77 77 72
71 Irving, TX 42 88 80 66
71 Lewisville, TX 42 88 80 66
71 Flower Mound, TX 42 88 80 66
71 Waukesha, WI 90 60 46 81
71 Muncie, IN 83 77 64 53
71 Cedar Rapids, IA 89 77 68 39
72 Lakewood, CO 69 70 57 86
72 Arvada, CO 69 70 57 86
72 Westminster, CO 69 70 57 86
72 Bozeman, MT 85 78 36 76
72 Missoula, MT 93 73 37 72
72 Salt Lake City, UT 80 78 46 78
73 Aberdeen, SD 93 69 63 57
73 Layton, UT 83 81 48 71
73 Biloxi, MS 67 76 93 42
73 Idaho Falls, ID 99 69 34 79
73 Duluth, MN 77 67 69 70
73 Raleigh, NC 46 75 84 75
73 Durham, NC 46 75 84 75
73 Cary, NC 46 75 84 75
74 Bismarck, ND 86 73 62 62
74 Laramie, WY 75 75 59 78
74 Bethlehem, PA 74 67 69 77
74 Seattle, WA 68 71 72 75
74 Bellevue, WA 68 71 72 75
75 Pompano Beach, FL 54 56 91 85
75 Deerfield Beach, FL 54 56 91 85
75 Rochester, MN 79 75 67 64
75 Rutland, VT 76 64 74 78
75 Newton, MA 59 79 77 72
76 Framingham, MA 59 79 78 72
76 Knoxville, TN 72 84 67 67
76 Jacksonville, FL 58 62 96 73
76 Port Saint Lucie, FL 73 60 73 86
76 Morgantown, WV 71 76 79 63
76 Charleston, WV 73 72 78 67
77 Akron, OH 83 74 66 66
77 Racine, WI 87 83 65 54
77 Cheyenne, WY 68 64 81 78
77 Butte, MT 89 82 46 79
77 Waukegan, IL 81 85 70 56
77 Ann Arbor, MI 92 76 55 71
78 Baytown, TX 92 62 53 88
78 Pasadena, TX 92 62 53 88
78 League City, TX 92 62 53 88
78 Austin, TX 57 89 78 74
78 Brockton, MA 79 78 73 65
78 Quincy, MA 79 78 73 65
79 Gresham, OR 81 81 63 79
79 Corpus Christi, TX 84 84 72 61
79 Wheeling, WV 82 79 71 68
79 Little Rock, AR 71 88 63 83
79 Fort Lauderdale, FL 57 60 92 94
79 Hollywood, FL 57 60 92 94
79 Kenosha, WI 91 79 67 65
80 Plantation, FL 57 60 92 94
80 Madison, WI 71 91 80 61
80 Waterloo, IA 87 90 78 47
80 Bloomington, IL 95 73 68 69
80 Billings, MT 86 84 52 84
81 Portland, OR 85 78 69 74
81 Centennial, CO 61 80 93 73
81 Highlands Ranch, CO 61 80 93 73
81 Denver, CO 61 80 93 73
81 Sioux Falls, SD 83 90 80 54
81 Oshkosh, WI 91 80 71 66
82 Memphis, TN 73 92 70 77
82 Southaven, MS 73 92 70 77
82 Green Bay, WI 83 82 77 70
82 Bellevue, NE 81 90 83 56
82 Richmond, VA 59 82 87 87
82 San Antonio, TX 67 86 88 74
83 Omaha, NE 77 94 83 58
83 Dover, DE 59 85 85 87
83 South Bend, IN 92 84 74 67
83 Eugene, OR 81 84 73 80
83 Nashville, TN 81 87 67 84
83 Aurora, CO 67 83 86 83
84 Pittsburgh, PA 85 83 79 73
84 West Fargo, ND 96 78 71 75
84 Fargo, ND 96 78 71 75
84 Watertown, SD 97 81 70 73
84 Bellingham, WA 66 79 82 96
84 Waldorf, MD 71 85 81 85
85 Saint Paul, MN 90 83 77 72
85 Cleveland, OH 92 82 68 81
85 New Bedford, MA 62 87 88 87
85 Fall River, MA 62 87 88 87
85 Scranton, PA 82 77 78 88
85 Saint Cloud, MN 83 81 75 86
86 Norwalk, CT 60 87 89 88
86 Tacoma, WA 78 81 77 90
86 Stamford, CT 60 87 89 88
86 Kailua, HI 86 82 73 86
86 Kalamazoo, MI 95 82 74 78
86 Centreville, VA 64 89 82 91
87 Virginia Beach, VA 62 86 91 89
87 Concord, NH 72 85 82 90
87 Eau Claire, WI 79 84 82 83
87 Saint Louis, MO 78 99 76 78
87 Atascocita, TX 74 89 83 87
87 Everett, WA 71 85 82 92
88 Wichita, KS 72 95 86 81
88 Baltimore, MD 75 88 85 93
88 Ellicott City, MD 75 88 85 93
88 Glen Burnie, MD 75 88 85 93
88 Washington, DC 65 93 90 88
88 Arlington, VA 65 93 90 88
88 Alexandria, VA 65 93 90 88
89 Flint, MI 88 90 80 82
89 South Portland, ME 70 91 90 90
89 Portland, ME 70 91 90 90
89 Minot, ND 98 80 81 80
89 Miami, FL 68 83 100 90
89 Miami Beach, FL 68 83 100 90
90 West Palm Beach, FL 73 78 98 92
90 Springfield, MA 76 88 92 88
90 Minneapolis, MN 90 86 84 83
90 Brooklyn Park, MN 90 86 85 83
90 Plymouth, MN 90 86 85 83
91 Hammond, IN 98 75 75 98
91 Gary, IN 98 75 75 98
91 Appleton, WI 98 77 79 94
91 Louisville, KY 91 93 75 90
91 Camden, NJ 81 86 90 92
91 Anchorage, AK 96 70 85 99
92 Auburn, WA 82 90 87 93
92 Kent, WA 82 90 87 93
92 Federal Way, WA 82 90 87 93
92 Houston, TX 85 91 87 91
92 Kenner, LA 91 85 100 76
92 Albany, NY 84 89 91 92
93 Fairbanks, AK 92 68 95 100
93 Dayton, OH 89 94 89 85
93 Westland, MI 94 95 89 80
93 Livonia, MI 94 95 90 80
93 Schaumburg, IL 85 97 94 81
93 Yonkers, NY 77 94 92 96
93 New Rochelle, NY 77 94 92 96
93 Mount Vernon, NY 77 94 92 96
94 Des Moines, IA 96 100 89 72
94 Chicago, IL 95 93 87 84
94 Cicero, IL 95 93 88 84
94 Erie, PA 100 90 80 97
95 Milwaukee, WI 87 99 96 80
95 Newark, NJ 84 93 93 96
95 Elizabeth, NJ 84 93 93 96
95 Montpelier, VT 89 92 89 96
95 Barre, VT 89 92 89 96
95 Rockford, IL 92 99 95 82
96 Farmington, MI 97 95 87 90
96 Hilo, HI 100 87 86 98
96 Worcester, MA 85 95 97 97
96 Fort Wayne, IN 96 97 94 85
96 Winooski, VT 91 92 95 97
96 Burlington, VT 91 92 95 97
97 Lansing, MI 95 96 94 92
97 Bangor, ME 86 96 95 99
97 Boston, MA 86 98 99 95
97 Cambridge, MA 86 98 99 95
97 Lynn, MA 86 98 99 95
97 Somerville, MA 86 98 99 95
98 Indianapolis, IN 98 100 90 91
98 Grand Forks, ND 100 96 94 93
98 Bloomington, MN 97 98 96 91
98 Grand Rapids, MI 97 99 95 94
98 Wyoming, MI 97 99 96 94
98 Parma, OH 98 96 95 97
99 Rochester, NY 99 96 97 95
99 Providence, RI 94 97 97 99
99 Warwick, RI 94 97 97 99
99 Cranston, RI 94 97 97 99
99 Canton, OH 97 98 99 98
99 Syracuse, NY 99 99 98 98
100 Buffalo, NY 100 96 97 99
100 Cheektowaga, NY 100 96 97 99
100 Youngstown, OH 98 100 99 98
100 Sitka, AK 99 100 98 100
100 Ketchikan, AK 98 100 100 100
100 Juneau, AK 100 100 100 100
WalletHub's Weather Report

Methodology

In light of hurricane season, WalletHub ranked 600 of the largest cities in the United States to identify the ones with the best year-round weather. Using nine key metrics, we defined ideal weather models both for lovers of mild weather year-round and for those who appreciate individual seasons.

In order to do so, we initially calculated each city’s monthly weather score by ranking the cities according to each metric and its corresponding weight. Afterwards we have identified the percentile for each city.

Given the fact that we evaluated 600 cities, some of which are geographically close to one another, we assigned each city a percentile rank. For instance, a value of 10 means that city belongs to the top 10 percent of cities in a particular category (e.g., winter category).

The following metrics as well as their corresponding weights were used for our overall rankings above.

Temperature & Humidity:

  • Difference between the Historical Average Monthly Temperature & Ideal Temperature for Each Season: 1.5
  • Chance of Humidity: 0.5

Precipitation & Snow:

  • Difference between the Historical Average Precipitation & Ideal Precipitation for Each Season: 1.5
  • Difference between the Historical Average Chance of Snow Day & Ideal Chance of Snow Day for Each Season: 0.5

Sky Conditions:

  • 0.3* Chance of Partly Cloudy + 0.7* Chance of Sunny Day: 3

Poor Weather Conditions:

  • Difference between the Historical Average Chance of Fog Day & Ideal Chance of Fog Day for Each Season: 0.5
  • Chance of Windy Day: 1

Extreme Weather:

  • Chance of Hail Day: 0.5
  • Chance of Tornado Day: 1.5

 

For certain metrics, it was necessary to define ideal values, and we used the following numbers:

Mild Weather Winter Spring Summer Fall
Temperature (°F) 72 45 65 80 65
Precipitation (inch)* 0 0.07 0 0 0.08
Chance of Snow (%) 0 7 0 0 0
Chance of Fog (%) 0 5 0 0 5

*Note: For precipitation, the numbers represent the daily average.

Source: Data used to create these rankings is courtesy of the U.S. Census Bureau, NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center and the Weather Underground.

 

Ask The Experts

Now that we’ve seen how each city ranks, let’s expand the discussion. For a multi-faceted view of the topic, we asked a panel of experts in various fields to give their input on the potential effects of weather on different aspects of people’s lives. Click on the experts’ profiles to read their bios and responses to the following key questions. You also can click on the left and right arrows to view the comments in the order that the experts appear below.

  1. What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?
  2. What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?
  3. Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?
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  • Norbert Schwarz Professor of Psychology, Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California
  • Jennifer Vanos Assistant Professor of Atmospheric Science, Texas Tech University
  • Ming Dong Associate Professor of Finance, Schulich School of Business, York University
  • Jill S. M. Coleman Associate Professor of Geography, Ball State University
  • Shantha Rajaratnam Associate Professor of Psychology, Monash University
  • David Watson Andrew J. McKenna Family Professor, University of Notre Dame
  • Thomas Plante The Augustin Cardinal Bea, S.J. University Professor, Santa Clara University
  • Jooa Julia Lee PhD Candidate in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School
  • Richard Chan Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior, Stony Brook University

Norbert Schwarz

Professor of Psychology, Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California
Norbert Schwarz
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

By and large people are in a better mood on sunny days than on overcast or rainy days. But this depends on season and other context variables – another sunny August day in Arizona or Texas is less welcome than the first sunny spring day after a long Northeastern winter. Moreover, the influence of the weather increases with the time you spend outside or at least see the outside – if your cubicle is in a windowless room, the influence is likely to be muted and may sometimes even reverse, putting you in bad mood when you miss the nice spring day.

What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?

The weather presumably influences thinking through its effect on mood. Hence, the above caveats apply – weather is most likely to influence thinking when it influences mood.

Being in a good mood affects thinking in multiple ways:

First, lots of things seem more positive when we are in a good mood. That’s the case because we evaluate many things by consulting our feelings, essentially asking ourselves, 'How do I feel about this?' This results in more positive judgments when we are in a happy than a sad mood.

Second, one consequence of relying on our feelings as a source of information is higher optimism under happy than sad moods. This presumably underlies one of the most robust weather effect known: the stock market is more likely to go up on sunny than on rainy days.

Third, good mood increases creativity and playful thinking, but decreases attention to detail and logical problem solving on tasks that require lots of attention. Being in a bad mood does the opposite – it helps with logic and hurts creativity. It is therefore a good idea to revisit problems when we are in different moods – feeling good helps with generating a new insight, but you may not want to rely on it before you checked it with a more somber eye.

Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?

People are utterly bad at tracking incidental cost and often lack the comparison information they would need. Commuters, for example, are likely to track fuel expenses, which they directly experience, but are unlikely to be aware of how the climate in their region affects depreciation of their car. That’s information that would need a comparison of resale values by region and is likely to get missed. So I think the answer to your question is a clear, ‘No!’, but I’m not aware of a good study to back that up.

Jennifer Vanos

Assistant Professor of Atmospheric Science, Texas Tech University
Jennifer Vanos
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

This is very broad, as some studies display significant associations and some show no associations. Such relationships can also depend on the time of year, the location in question, and the type of person. However, generally people who can enjoy the weather (be it happy about snow or happy about some rain) will be in a better mood. There are co-variables that act in conjunction with other factors to influence this relationship, some of which are described below.

A large connection with mood however, will exist based on human health. Many people’s health changes in response to the weather conditions present. The state of the atmosphere influences migraines, blood pressure, arthritis, behavior, respiratory ailments, and heart disease. Hence, when people are in more or less pain, their mood will be good or bad, respectively. For example, low barometric pressure is also associated with increased arthritis symptoms and headaches. Moreover, consistency has been found with low barometric pressure from frontal systems being associated with suicide and hospital psychiatric admissions and depression diagnoses. Extreme heat has been associated with decreased mood, work, activity, and behavior, and also makes people lethargic, uncomfortable, and irritable. Many types of crime, illness, and mortality increase during heat waves. The amount of sunshine versus cloud cover is definitely a mood booster for most people, particular in the spring season.

What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?

In terms of productivity, keeping people at optimal thermal comfort will keep people at their highest work capacity and ability to think /act clearly. This impacts outdoor workers the most, where outdoor workers in extreme heat and cold situations need to take more breaks to maintain thermal balance, which can cost a business in terms of productivity.

The ability to track weather patterns based on a specific location, and to associate them with health ailments such as arthritis, asthma, diabetes, heart disease and migraines can be extremely useful to business owners, as they can be prepared for days where productivity may be less, and come up with ways to avoid a loss (e.g., completing indoor work, providing colder water and more shelter from the heat, providing shade). Since this type of weather data is readily available, such preventative actions and/or warnings can be more prevalent and headed by businesses.

Humidity has a great impact on people’s ability to feel comfortable due to resultant sweating. This may have the largest implications for work productivity, irritability, and also thinking clearly or innovatively, but a study has not been completed to clearly tease out this impact from other variables.

Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?

I think that the main weather related costs that are internalized are extreme heat and cold (based on electricity bills), and extreme weather disasters. However, there are other problems due to weather that go ignored, such as the relationship to other related energy bill costs (solar radiation entering a house can dramatically increase temperatures (good in winter, bad in summer)), chronic health ailments, mood, productivity, and other related lifestyle changes (e.g., lack of exercise due to poor outdoor comfort resulting in decreased health and higher medical bills).

When outdoor spaces (backyard, local neighborhood) are not conducive for use outdoors, the well-being and health of individuals in those areas decreases; therefore, having comfortable and safe outdoor spaces to use comfortably and improve mood are extremely beneficial and transfer over to decrease energy bills (e.g., shading a house), and increased health and well-being. Hence, location is one of the most important indicators of health for many reasons, but the more thermally comfortable a location, no matter the season, the more likely the space is to be used. This improves health and leads to lower health care costs and days of work lost.

For businesses, providing indoor office workers with a nearby, comfortable, aesthetically pleasing, and outdoor space to get fresh air and sunlight can aid in productively and thinking (a perfect example is the rooftop garden on the top of the New York Times building where people can go for break or lunch).

Ming Dong

Associate Professor of Finance, Schulich School of Business, York University
Ming Dong
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

People's mood is significantly affected by weather conditions. In a paper with my Ph.D. student (Andreanne Tremblay), "Does the Weather Influence Global Stock Returns?” we study the effect of weather conditions on daily stock index returns around the globe. Our basic hypothesis is that ‘comfortable’ weather conditions would lift mood and promote optimism, which in turn would lead to stock buying. We find that the relation between weather conditions and mood is quite complex, and it depends on both the geographical region (cold, mild, or hot) and season of the year. However, our findings can be summarized by two themes.

First, stock prices move higher when the weather is ‘nice’ or ‘comfortable’ (for example, in cold countries like the U.S. and Canada, sunny, not windy, not rainy, and not snowy conditions are comfortable), and the weather's effect on mood is particularly strong when people expect to spend more time outdoors (in the cold and mild regions, spring and summer are the popular outdoor seasons). Second, perhaps surprisingly, stock prices move higher when the temperature is low during frigid winter times. A psychological explanation for this finding is that people tend to become more aggressive and risk-seeking under extreme cold temperatures (conceivably this has to do with enhancing human survival rates in the old days).

From the investment viewpoint, our findings suggest that not all stock market movements are explained by ‘real’ or ‘fundamental’ economic news, and the weather may explain a substantial part of ‘unknown’ movements. Furthermore, one could make notice of the weather conditions to help guide the stock trading decisions. For professional institutional investors, a weather-based hedge strategy -- take a long position in a country index which is expected to have the highest return and simultaneously short the index that is expected to do the worst, and rebalance daily-- is profitable on average. For small individual investors, our findings at least suggest that mood (not necessarily caused by the weather) does affect our financial decision-making, and it is wise to refrain from being affected by daily mood swings in our investment decisions.

What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?

It is indeed conceivable that mood swings caused by the weather can affect people's productivity. However, this productivity-based reasoning can hardly explain our findings described above, because we study how daily weather conditions affect daily returns. Since stock prices should reflect long-runeconomic values, daily weather fluctuations have little to do with economic fundamentals. For example, it is unreasonable to argue that the long-run fundamental value of the economy should go up just because it is sunny today and it should go down if it rains tomorrow, because the fundamentals are not affected by these transient weather variations.

In addition, the productivity-based explanation would give the wrong prediction about how stock prices should move during frigid winter days. A tough and cold winter (like the one we just experienced in North America) should cause a slowdown in the economy and lead to lower stock prices. However, empirically, we find colder winter temperatures lead to higher stock returns, which is more consistent with an explanation based on investor mood and risk-seeking attitude.

Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?

I do not believe most people internalize all the weather related real effects; rather, the evidence of our study suggests that people tend to suffer from the problem of misattribution-- they are more optimistic about the future when they feel happier.

Jill S. M. Coleman

Associate Professor of Geography, Ball State University
Jill S. M. Coleman
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

Poor weather conditions (temperature extremes, precipitation days, high humidity) can make some people feel depressed, lethargic, and irritable whereas comfortable weather can encourage activity, happiness, and alertness.

Some people may suffer from seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a seasonal depression that develops in the cold-season in middle and high latitude locations due to changes in daylight availability.

What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?

Investigations into the relationship between weather and work productivity have produced mixed results and often very location and/or profession dependent. Some studies suggest office and student work productivity increases during inclement weather conditions that require people to become more focused on tasks rather than day-dreaming about leisurely outdoor activities or taking time off. Others have suggested pleasant conditions make people more energized and willing to go to work or school.

Occupation can also strongly impact productivity and earning potential. Transportation related positions, such as truck drivers, will be more productive at transferring goods during fine weather whereas poor weather may boost earnings for mall business owners as people seek indoor activities.

Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?

Directly or indirectly, weather conditions and the prevailing climate are a significant factor in local infrastructure costs and personal decision making. For instance, when purchasing a home people often consider the monthly heating/cooling bills, hazard insurance requirements (e.g., flood), seasonal snow removal, lawn maintenance, and water usage restrictions among other factors in their decision making process. However, some weather related costs (or savings) are often offset by non-weather related impacts. Pleasant driving weather could shorten commute times with increased speed but the potential savings could be counterbalanced by increased roadway congestion and reduced fuel economy.

Shantha Rajaratnam

Associate Professor of Psychology, Monash University
Shantha Rajaratnam
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is linked to a shortening of day length and potentially a change in the internal timing relationship between the circadian clock and the sleep-wake cycle. Bright light therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder.

Depression is associated with reduced productivity and performance.

David Watson

Andrew J. McKenna Family Professor, University of Notre Dame
David Watson
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

My data suggested that weather—even fairly extreme weather conditions—had little effect on mood. Later studies pretty much have found the same thing. I still believe there is some relationship, but the association clearly is very weak (and the relations are complex). Weather is only one of the many, many factors that influence mood.

What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?

My own subjective impression is that my productivity drops a bit during the Midwestern winter due to frequent snow shoveling, poor driving conditions, etc.

Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?

Yes, I believe that basically is correct. Extensive research indicates that people tend to get so used to typical, chronic aspects of their lives that they stop thinking about them. People will note deviations from the normal, however (e.g., a snowier, colder winter than usual; an unusually hot summer).

Thomas Plante

The Augustin Cardinal Bea, S.J. University Professor, Santa Clara University
Thomas Plante
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

It seems clearly related. In fact, we have a psychiatric diagnosis called SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) that speaks to this very issue. People are more likely to be depressed with dark, cold, rainy weather than with sunny, warm, light weather. People are also more likely to develop alcohol troubles in bad weather.

What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?

This was especially true before we had central air and heat. Hot climates were less productive than cool as a rule.

Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?

Depends what you mean by internalize. Heating and cooling costs can be very big and need to be taken into consideration for people in terms of costs of living. Also, weather matters when it comes to purchasing clothes, transportation, and so forth too. Savvy people know this and plan for it.

Jooa Julia Lee

PhD Candidate in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School
Jooa Julia Lee
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

I think the relationship between weather conditions and mood is not very straightforward, as it depends on individual preference. Some people prefer sunny summer days, others prefer snow days. In general, however, good weather (operationalized by high barometric pressure, mild temperature, low humidity for example) is associated with a positive mood while bad weather is associated with a negative mood. Clinical psychologists have also identified the harmful effect of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), in which seasonally recurrent symptoms of sadness and depression occur in winter months when the temperature drops and the days grow short.

What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?

Our research (Lee, Gino, &Staats, 2014) shows that bad weather conditions actual increase work productivity. Across four studies, our study demonstrates that worker productivity is higher on bad weather days, because workers tend to be more cognitively distracted on good weather days. But it should be noted that our measure of worker productivity was limited to a data entry task, which requires sustained attention, and thus more likely to be affected by cognitive distractions, rather than affective influences such as weather-driven changes in mood. A positive mood tends to encourage less constrained, less effortful, and more creative/innovative problem-solving; there are some studies that show how good weather conditions broadened workers’ cognition, thus increasing the flexibility of their thoughts. When it comes to earning potential, there are some previous studies on how weather influences stock market returns, and stock market returns tend to be lower during summer and autumn months than during the winter and spring.

Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?

I personally do not believe that people actually internalize these costs associated with weather into their everyday decision-making. It is possible that people are not aware that these incidental influences, including weather, can have a significant effect on their finances, and even if they are aware of its importance, they may not be accurate in predicting how it influences their decision-making. In our study, for example, we found that more than 80% of the people predicted that good weather conditions will be helpful to worker productivity, although we show the opposite pattern.

Richard Chan

Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior, Stony Brook University
Richard Chan
What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s mood?

Two weather conditions: sunshine and temperature have been studied frequently. Sunshine has been found to signal a safe environment and elicit a positive mood, resulting in easier and more heuristic information processing. On the other hand, cloudy days can result in a negative mood, fostering a more controlled, systematic type of information processing. Sunshine has been found to lead to happiness (Schwarz &Clore, 1983), to increase tipping (Rind, 1996), to decrease depression and suicide (Tietjen&Kripke, 1994), and positively relate to stock market returns (Hirshleifer& Shumway, 2003; Saunders, 1993). Not all effects of sunshine are positive, however. For example, during college visits sunshine can decrease the likelihood that students will enroll in that school (Simonsohn, 2010).

The second most frequently studied weather condition is temperature. Studies have found that hotter temperatures are associated with greater aggression and higher crime rates (e.g., Anderson, 1989; Bushman, Wang, & Anderson, 2005; Larrick, Timmerman, Carton, &Abrevaya, 2011). Recent studies showed a negative relationship between temperature and a preference for romantic movies (Hong & Sun, 2012).

What is the relationship between weather conditions and people’s work productivity, innovative thinking, and earning potential?

Because cloudy days can result in a negative mood, fostering a more controlled and systematic type of information processing, studies have found that cloudy days improve detailed-oriented performance and can reduce errors (Lee, Gino, &Staats, 2014).

I am unaware of any studies that investigate how weather conditions influence innovative thinking. It is theoretically likely that sunshine could result in more innovative thinking because it has been found to elicit a positive mood, shown to result in creativity (Amabile, Barsade, Mueller, &Staw, 2005). However, one of my studies has provided a somewhat counterintuitive finding. In investigating how weather can influence earnings forecasts by financial analysts, we found that more pleasant and stable weather can encourage analysts to produce a forecast similar to that of prior analysts (Chan, Mitchell, &Boeker, working paper), which suggests that weather effects on innovative thinking may be complex and that further studies are needed.

Weather effects on earnings potential may be a trickier issue, since earnings likely depend on the nature of the job and its performance appraisal system. If the principal task is detailed oriented and if a company rewards this component, then cloudy weather will likely boost earnings potential. On the other hand, if the main task of a job is more creative and companies reward that behavior, sunshine would more likely boost earnings potential.

Weather conditions affect people’s wallets in multiple ways ranging from energy bills and local infrastructure costs to commute times and insurance costs. Do you believe that most people internalize all the weather related costs (or savings) associated with where they live?

Yes and no. If people are aware of how weather may influence energy, infrastructure or insurance costs, and have consciously calculated such costs, they would be more likely to internalize related costs. For example, I was never aware of the high energy bills associated with long winters until I moved to Stony Brook, New York, which was very different from my previous experience living on the west coast, so I knew that in order to balance my budget, I would have to internalize weather related costs. For more hidden weather costs, such as how weather can affect mood, it is difficult to internalize unless people experience serious chronic effects such as depression.
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Richie Bernardo is a financial writer at WalletHub. He graduated with a Bachelor of Journalism and a minor in business from the University of Missouri-Columbia. Previously, Richie was a journalism…
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I don't know how I can take seriously rankings that have 185 or so other places ahead of San Diego for mildest climate. The methodology used is seriously flawed.
Jul 26, 2014  •  Reply  •  Flag
What a joke! California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas are best for 4 seasons...you do know that Winter is a season, right? And, with Winter comes snow...you do know that, right? I live in Western New York and, frankly, the Northeast US is the prettiest in the country when someone wants to truly experience ALL four seasons. I see BS reports like this and it makes me chuckle. Sure, we get a few months of read more
Jul 23, 2014  •  Reply  •  Flag