The most common reason to outsource an activity is cost. In many cases, a subcontractor or independent contractor can perform an activity at a cost point than is lower than a business's internal cost. A cost benefit like this is magnified when the quantity or schedule of the activity is irregular or uncertain. If there is a task that is a necessary input to your business but you don't do enough of it to require a full-time resource and a part-time resource doesn't make sense, then outsourcing is a good solution. Similarly, if weeks go by when a certain activity isn't required and then suddenly you have to do a lot of it, then it's good to have partner(s) lined up because it's impractical to staff for this internally.
Another common reason has to do with expertise. A firm that really specializes in an activity may be able to do it better or faster than an internal resource that does the activity infrequently or sporadically.
A third is related to barriers to entry. If an activity requires a professional certification or license your internal team doesn't possess and that would be cost-prohibitive or time-consuming to obtain, then this is an obvious outsourcing opportunity
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